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 Labarion (Alounis)

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AuteurMessage
Olivier Simon



Messages : 3850
Date d'inscription : 20/02/2009
Localisation : Lorraine

MessageSujet: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 10:41

J'ai dcouvert sur un groupe Yahoo une conlang trs proche du gaulois tel qu'il a pu exister, le "Labarion". Il fut invent par un certain Alounis. D'aprs un membre du groupe, rien n'empche que que je reproduise les fichiers grammaticaux (en anglais) ici.

J'ai vu qu'un dico est sur Scribd : http://fr.scribd.com/doc/63820956/Labarion-Dictionary

Voici les dclinaisons des substantifs :


LABARION LANGUAGE


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF DECLENSION STEMS:


VOCALIC STEMS:
1) themes in o & io (masculine & neuter) (mo) (no)
2) themes in i & (feminine) (fa)
3) themes in i (masc., fem. & neut.) (mi) (fi) (ni)
4) themes in u (masc., fem. & neut.) (mu) (fu) (nu)

CONSONANTAL STEMS:
1) themes in dental ( -d or -t ) (masc., fem. & neut.) (md)(mt) (fd)(ft) (nd)(nt)
2) themes in guttural ( -g or -c ) (masc., fem. & neut.) (mg)(mc) (fg)(fc) (ng)(nc)
3) themes in nasal (-n) (masc. & fem.) (mn) (fn)
4) neuters in nasal special class- (neut.) (nn)
5) themes in r (masc. & fem.) (mr) (fr)
6) neuters in s (neut.) (ns)
7) some irregular & indeclinable nouns

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VOCALIC STEMS

1)
MASCULINE O STEMS (mo):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative wiros *-os man
vocative wire *-e ey man!
accusative wiron *-om (to) man (Dir. Obj.)
genitive wiri *-osio > *-oio >*- mans
dative wir *-i for man (Ind. Obj.)
ablative wir *-d from man
instrumental wir *- with man
locative wir *-ei in man

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. wir *-(u) two men
genitive wirs *-s (-osi-?)
dative wirobon *-bh()m
ablat.-instr. wirobin *-bhi-m
locative wirou *-ou

Plural
nominative wirij *-oi men
vocative wirs *-ns
accusative wirs *-ns
genitive wiron *-om / <-m
dative wirobo *-bh-(y)os
ablative wirobi *-bhi-s
instrumental wirobi (or wirs) *-is
locative wirobi *-oisu


NEUTER O STEMS (no):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative cradion (or cridion) *-om heart
vocative cradion *-om
accusative cradion *-om
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine ones)

Dual: the same as Singular.

Plural:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative cradi (or cridi) *- hearts
vocative cradi *-
accusative cradi *-
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine ones)


* * * *

2)
FEMININE STEMS (fa):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative genet *- girl
vocative geneta *-a ey girl!
accusative genetin *-m (to) girl (Dir. Obj.)
genitive genetis *-s of girl
dative genet *-i for girl (Ind. Obj.)
ablative genet *-d from girl
instrumental genet (or geneti) *- (-yi, < them.) with girl
locative genet *-i in girl

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. genet (or genetij) *-ai / -oi two girls
genitive genetis (or tious) *-ai(oi)-ous
dative genetbon *-bh()m
ablat.-instr. genetbin *-bhi-m
locative genetbin *-bhim (instr.)

Plural
nominative genets *-s girls
vocative genets *-s
accusative genets *-ns
genitive genetnon *-m / *-nm
dative genetbo *-bh-(y)os
ablative genetbi *-bhi-s
instrumental genetbi *-bhi-s
locative genetbi *-su
Remark: The archaic themes in are declined in the same way that the remaining (fa) stems. Their difference is the nom sg.; the acc. sg. is optionally n or in. The other cases either are the same or have been levelled: bldn (fa) year, rgan (fa) queen (genitives bldnis, rganis)

ben (fa) woman, irregular word
Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative ben *gwen/gwena woman
vocative bena woman!
accusative banin (or benin) *gwnam (Dir. Obj.)
genitive mns *gwns
dative mni *-gwni (Ind. Obj.)
ablative mni *-d
instrumental mni
locative mni

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. mni *-ai / -oi two women
genitive banis (or banious) *-ai(oi)-ous
dative mnbon *-bh()m
ablat.-instr. mnbin *-bhi-m
locative mnbin *-bhim (instr.)

Plural
nominative mns *gwns women
vocative mns *-s
accusative mns *-ns
genitive mnnon *-m / *-nm
dative mnbo *-bh-(y)os
ablative mnbi *-bhi-s
instrumental mnbi *-bhi-s
locative mnbi *-su
Remark: ben is an archaic word with root alternance (*gwen-/gwn-) and originally an a short theme. There were other short a themes (including a few masculines!), but for practical purposes Labarion has levelled them to the regular themes.


* * * *

3)
I STEMS (mi) (fi), (masculine and feminine):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nominative wlatis (fem.) *-is territory
vocative wlati *-i
accusative wlatin *-im (Dir. Obj.)
genitive wlats / wlatejos *-eis
dative wlat *-ey(ei) (Ind. Obj.)
ablative wlat *-d
instrumental wlat *- / -i
locative wlat *-i

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. wlat *- two territories
genitive wlatis (or wlatious) *-i-ous
dative wlatibon *-ibh()m
ablat.-instr. wlatibin *-ibhi-m
locative wlatibin *-ibhim (instr.)

Plural
nominative wlaties / -s / -ejes *-eyes territories
vocative wlates / -s / -ejes *-eyes
accusative wlats *-ns
genitive wlation *-im
dative wlatibo *-ibh-(y)os
ablative wlatibi *-ibhi-s
instrumental wlatibi *-ibhi-s
locative wlatibi *-isu


NEUTER I STEMS (ni):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nom.-voc.-acc. mori *-i sea
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine-feminine ones)

Dual: the same as Singular.

Plural:
Case Word Proto-form of case meaning
nom.-voc.-acc. mori *-i / ia seas
(the remaining cases are the same as the masculine-feminine ones)

Remark: From i themes on, the masculine and feminine of each stem share their declension (with some exception in the u themes). Only the neuter goes apart, and only for the nom-voc.-acc. cases.


* * * *

4)
U STEMS (mu) (fu), (masculine and feminine):

Singular
Case Masculine Proto-form Feminine Diphthonged
nominative catus (battle) *-us moccus (pig) bous (cow, fem)
vocative catu *-u moccu bou
accusative catun *-um moccun bn (<*gwm)
genitive catous / cats *-ous/-eus moccus bowos
dative catou / cat *-owei mocc bow (<*gwouei
ablative cat *-d mocc / mocc bo
instrumental cat *- mocc / mocc bo
locative cat *-u mocc / mocc bo (orig. *-owi)

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. cat *- mocc bo
genitive catow *-owou moccus bow
dative catoubon moccubon boubon
abl.-instr. catoubin *-(V)u-bhm moccubin boubin
locative catoubin moccubin boubin

Plural
nominative catowes *-oues moccus bowes
vocative catowes *-oues moccus bowes
accusative cats *-ns moccus bs <*gws
genitive catujon *-uwom moccujon bowion
dative catoubo moccubo boubo
ablative catoubi moccubi boubi
instrumental catoubi *-(V)u-bhis moccubi boubi
locative catoubi *-usu moccubi boubi

Flexion of Neuters: The same as masc.-fem. Only considering the nom.-voc.-acc. beru (nu) pointed stake (sg.), and beru stakes (pl.).

Remarks: The flexion of the feminine words has been partially influenced by that of (fa).
The words in original diphthong have a peculiar flexion, although Labarion has tended to regularize them to the current u stems. There is only a few words in diphthong: dius (mu) day, bous (fu) cow, cnous (fu) nut, crou (nu) blood (accusatives diun, bn, cnoun, croun, genitives diwos, bowos, cnowos, crowos).
The paradigm, from a very old Indo-European origin, has been mainly regularized: dius (<*dijus), voc. diu (<*djeu), acc. diun (<*djm), gen. diwos (<*diws), dat. diw (arch., <*diui), instr. di <*dij,... ), abl. and loc. assimilated to instr., as usual in Labarion.


* * * *

CONSONANTAL STEMS

1)
THEMES IN DENTAL (md) (mt) (fd) (ft):

Singular:
Case Conson.-root in -D Conson.-root in -T Proto-form of case
nominative-vocat. drits (md) druid tragets (ft) foot *d/t s
accusative driden trageten *-m
genitive dridos tragetos *-s
dative drid traget *-i
ablative dridi trageti *-d?
instrumental dridi trageti *-e
locative dridi trageti *-

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. dride tragete *-e
genitive dridou / drid tragetou / traget *-ou
dative dridobon / dridbon tragetobon /tragetbon *-(o)-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr. dridobin / dridbin tragetobin / tragetbin *-(o)-bhm
locative dridobin / dridbin tragetobin / tragetbin *-(o)-bhm

Plural:
nominative-vocat. drides tragetes *-es
accusative drids tragets *-ns
genitive dridon trageton *-om < -m
dative dridobo / dridbo tragetobo / tragetbo *-(o)-bhy(o)s
ablative dridobi / dridbi tragetobi / tragetbi *-(o)-bhis
instrumental dridobi / dridbi tragetobi / tragetbi *-(o)-bhis
locative dridobi / dridbi tragetobi / tragetbi *-s

Remarks.- To this stem belong masculine and feminine words, and they arent plentiful. The only important neuter in this declension is dant (nt) tooth (gen. dantos, nom. pl. dant).
Some words from this theme: welts (mt) mystical poet, seer (gen. weltos), carans (m/ft) friend (gen. carantos), cingets (mt) "soldier", nmans (mt) "foe", nts (mt) "hero, champion".
There are a few unusual nominatives, like:
moritex (mt) sailor (gen. moritextos), nox (ft) "night" (gen. noxtos).


* * * *

2)
THEMES IN GUTTURAL (mg) (mc) (fg) (fc):
The declension of this theme is fully parallel to that of the dental theme.

Singular:
Case Conson.-root in -D Conson.-root in -T Proto-form of case
nominative-vocat. rx (mg) king ariox (mc)nobleman *g/c s
accusative rgen ariocen *-m
genitive rgos ariocos *-s
dative rg arioc *-i
ablative rgi arioci *-d?
instrumental rgi arioci *-e
locative rgi arioci *-

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. rge arioce *-e
genitive rgou / rg ariocou / arioc *-ou
dative rgobon / rgbon ariocobon /ariocbon *-(o)-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr. rgobin / rgbin ariocobin / ariocbin *-(o)-bhm
locative rgobin / rgbin ariocobin / ariocbin *-(o)-bhm

Plural:
nominative-vocat. rges arioces *-es
accusative rgs ariocas *-ns
genitive rgon ariocon *-om < -m
dative rgobo / rgbo ariocobo / ariocbo *-(o)-bhy(o)s
ablative rgobi / rgbi ariocobi / ariocbi *-(o)-bhis
instrumental rgobi / rgbi ariocobi / ariocbi *-(o)-bhis
locative rgobi / rgbi ariocobi / ariocbi *-s


* * * *


3)
THEMES IN NASAL (mn) (fn):

Singular:
Case Word Proto-form of case Meaning
nominative-vocat. c (masc.) *ku(n) dog, hound
accusative cunen *kunm
genitive cunos *kuns
dative cun *kuni
ablative cuni = loc.
instrumental cuni = loc.
locative cuni *kun

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. cune *-e two-dogs
genitive cunou / cun *-ou
dative cunobon *-(o)-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr. cunobin *-(o)-bhm
locative cunobin *-(o)-bhm

Plural:
nominative-vocat. cunes *-es dogs
accusative cuns *-ns
genitive cunon *-om < -m
dative cunobo *-(o)-bhy(o)s
ablative cunobi *-(o)-bhis
instrumental cunobi *-(o)-bhis
locative cunobi *-s


* * * *


4)
NEUTERS IN NASAL (nn):
A few cases of the nasal neuters show slight differences with regard to the masc-fem.:

Singular:
Case Word Word Proto-form of case
nom.-voc.-acc. anuan "name" camman "step" *anmn / *kangsmn
genitive anus camms *anmens / -smens
dative anuan camman
ablat.-instr.-loc. anuani cammani

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. anuane cammane
genitive anuanou / anuan cammanou / -n
dative anuanbon cammanbon
ablat.-instr.-loc. anuanbin cammanbin

Plural:
nom.-voc.-acc. anuan camman
genitive anuanon cammanon
dative anuanbo cammanbo *anmn-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr.-loc. anuanbi cammanbi *anmn-bhis

Some words belonging to the nasal stems are: garman (nn) "shout", goba (mn) "smith" (genit. gobanos), talam (mn) "earth" (genit. talamonos), br (fn) "breast, womb" (genit. brunnos), ux (mn) "ox" (genit. uxonos).


* * * *


5)
THEMES IN -R (mr) (fr):
Here belong only masc. and fem. nouns of relatives:

Singular:
Case Word Word Proto-form of case
nom.-voc.-acc. atr "father" suir "sister" *patr / *suesr
accusative ateren suioren *paterm / *suesorm
genitive atros suioros *p3trs
dative atr suior
ablat.-instr.-loc. atri suiori

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. atere suiore
genitive atrou / atr suiorou / -r
dative atrebon suiorebon
ablat.-instr.-loc. atrebin suiorebin

Plural:
nom.-voc. ateres suiores *pateres / *suesores
accusative aters suiors *paterns
genitive atron suioron *patrom < -m
dative atrebo suiorebo
ablat.-instr.-loc. atrebi suiorebi *paterobhis

Among the few words of this theme are: mtr (fr) "mother", brtr (mr) "broter"and awontr (mr) "maternal oncle".


* * * *

6)
NEUTERS IN -S (ns):

Singular:
Case Word Word Proto-form of case
nom.-voc.-acc. tegos "house" nemos "heaven"
genitive tegios nemios *tegesos / *nemesos
dative teges nemes *teges(i) / *nemes(i)
ablat.-instr.-loc. teges nemes

Dual
nom.-voc.-acc. tegie nemie *tegese
genitive tegi nemi
dative tegiobon nemiobon
ablat.-instr.-loc. tegiobin nemiobin

Plural:
nom.-voc.-acc. tegi nemi *teges / *nemes
genitive tegion nemion *tegesom
dative tegiobo nemiobo *tegeso-bhy(o)m
ablat.-instr.-loc. tegiobi nemiobi *tegeso-bhis

The old intervocalic -s- of this theme has been lost.
Some important words of this theme are also magos (ns) "field" and letos (ns) "side".


* * * *

7)
SOME IRREGULAR AND UNDECLINABLE NOUNS:

In Labarion are undeclinable especially those foreign words and names with a structure difficult to accord with the rules of the native language:

Itjm in New York sindi "I go to New York today"
Alexander coi essi. Slnosepi do Alexander "Here is Alexander. Say hello to Alexander"

Irregular native words are unusual, because the language tends to include them into regular paradigms. But a somewhat particular word is mss or mts (<*mns) "month", gen. mssos (<*mnsos), cf. OIr. m, ms; mss is masculine and otherwise declined as a typical consonantal theme (nom. pl. msses, etc.).



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Olivier Simon



Messages : 3850
Date d'inscription : 20/02/2009
Localisation : Lorraine

MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 10:43

LABARISH ADJECTIVES

In Labarion, adjectives must agree with the nouns they qualify, in their gender, number and case:
wiros mros "big man" (nominative sig. masculine)
ben mr "big woman" (nominative sing. feminine)
cridion mron "big heart" (nominative sing. neuter)
wiri mri "of a big man" (genitive), mns mris "of a big woman", cridij mri "of a big heart",...... etc.

The noun-adjective order is free; the sentence emphasis or personal style lead to use an order or the another:
wirij mrij or mrij wirij "big men".
Nevertheless, the order noun + adjective tends to be predominant (it is the order that finally won in Insular Celtic).


Declension of Adjectives

The declension of adjectives is similar to that of the nouns, but adjectives belong barely to only four declension themes:

Thematic adjectives : masculines in -os, feminines in - and neuters in -on.
Adjectives in -i : masc. and femin. in -is and neuters in -i.
Adjectives in -u : masc. and fem. in -us and neuters in -u.
Consonantal adjectives : they are very scarce; barely a couple of archaic formations.

- Most of adjectives belong to the thematic theme,
- Adjectives in -i are also abundant,
- There are not many adjectives in -u, and moreover they tend to slip to the -i theme,
- Consonantal adjectives are rare archaisms, like tns "warm" (genit. tntos).

In the Labarish grammar, every adjective is presented in the same way as adjectives in classical Latin grammar: the masculine form (or common masc.-fem.) followed by the abridged form of the remaining genders:
mros - -on "big, great" (thematic)
matis -i "good" (in -i)
dubus -u "black" (in -u)

Thematic adjectives
"big, great" masc. sg. neuter sg. fem. sg. masc. pl. neuter pl. fem. pl.
nom. mros mron mr mrij mr mrs
vocat. mre mron mra mrs mr mrs
accus. mron mron mrin mrs mr mrs
genit. mri = mris mron = mrnon
dat. mr = mr mrobo = mrbo
ablat. mr = mr mrobi = mrbi
instr. mr = mr (-i) mrobi = mrbi
locat. mr = mr mrobi = mrbi

Adjectives in -i
"fine, fair" masc. sg. neuter sg. fem. sg. masc. pl. neuter pl. fem. pl.
nom. canis cani = masc. canejes cani = masc.
vocat. cani cani = masc. canejes cani = masc.
accus. canin cani = masc. cans cani = masc.
genit. cans = canis canion = =
dat. can = = masc. canibo = =
ablat. can = = masc. canibi = =
instr. can = = masc. canibi = =
locat. can = = masc. canibi = =

Adjectives in -u
"black" masc. sg. neuter sg. fem. sg. masc. pl. neuter pl. fem. pl.
nom. dubus dubu dubus dubijes dubi dubis
vocat. dubu dubu dubu dubijes dubi dubis
accus. dubun dubu dubuin dubs dubi dubis
genit. dubous/-s = dubus dubujon = =
dat. dubou / = dubu dubuibo = dububo
ablat. dub = dubu dubuibi = dububi
instr. dub = dubu dubuibi = dububi
locat. dub = dubu dubuibi = dububi

As it may be noticed, the differences between the declesion of nouns and adjectives fall on -i and -u themes, which show a certain degree of mixture between the different themes (and the -u themes tending to enter -i themes, a stage almost completely reached in the later Old Irish).


Prefixed and Suffixed Adjectives

Prefixing and suffixing adjectives usually change the meaning of the resulting word, so creating a new word.

Some adjectives are used only as prefixes.
du- "bad": wiros "man" > duwiros "a bad man"
leto- "half": letowiros "a half-man"
misso- "false, pseudo-" (cfs. English mis-): missowiros "an seeming, false man"
su- "good": suwiros "a good man" (metaphorically, a nobleman, a non-slave)

dago- "good" and druco- "bad" can be used both as prefixes and as loose adjectives:
dagowiros or wiros dagos "good, kind man".

Other examples:
dubnos "deep" and mros "big", when suffixed, modify the word in some sense:

brig "value, price" > brigomros "valuable, precious" ('of-great-price')
britus "mind" > britumros "intelligent"
condari "anger, rage" > condaridubnos "furious, very irascible"
nerton "strenght" > nertomros "powerful, potent"
togis "pleasant, nice" > togidubnos "very pleasant"

(these formations use to appear in personal names)


Comparison of Adjectives

Degreees of comparison:
Equative: "as ... as" (con-) (or -isetos - -on) (occasionally con- + -iseto-)
Comparative: "-er" (-is)
Superlative: "-est" (-isamos - -on)

The second element of a comparison is put in the ablative case.

About the equative, the forms with -iseto- are used in some primitive adjectives, being such an use somewhat irregular; composed and derivated adjectives use the con- form.

Cawaros axrisetos monij "a giant as tall as a mountain" (equative)
Cawaros axris monij "a giant taller than a mountain" (comparative)
Cawaros axrisamos "the tallest giant" (superlative)

Declension of Comparison

Equative and superlative are declined like ordinary adjectives in -os - -on, but the comparative is declined like an archaic -s theme:

"white" masc-fem. sg. proto-f. neuter proto-f. masc-fem. pl. proto-f. neuter proto-f.
nom. windis *-ys windios *-yos windies *-oses windi *-yosah
accus. windian *-yosm " windis *-yosns "
genitive windios *-yesos = windion *-yesom =
remaining
cases windies *-yes-i = windiobi =

Lorgos cawari axrios monij "the club of a giant taller than a mountain"




Irregular Gradations

In the western languages, some basic adjectives do have irregular gradations in the way of English 'good-better-best'. In Labarion this covers about a dozen of adjectives:

equative comparative superlative
adgossus -u
"close, near" nessetos - -on
"as close" nessis -ios
"closer" nessamos - -on
"closest"
biccos - -on
"little, small" biccisetos - -on
"as little" lagis -ios
"smaller" lagisamos - -on
"smallest"
cintus -u
"first" (no form) cintis -ios
"first more" cintamos - -on
"foremost"
dagos - -on
"good" condagos - -on
"as good" wellos - -on
"better" werowos - -on
"best"
drucos - -on
"bad" condrucos - -on
"as bad" wextos - -on
"worse" wextamos - -on
"worst"
elus -u
"many" comantis -i
"as many"(cf. mro-) lejs -u
"much more" (no form)
isselos - -on
"low" issetos - -on
"as low" issis -ios
"lower" issamos - -on
"lowest"
jowincos - -on
"young" jowincetos - -on
"as young" jews -wos
"younger" jewisamos - -on
"youngest"
letanos - -on
"broad, wide" cobletos - -on
"as broad" letis -i
"wider" letisamos - -on
"widest"
mros - -on
"big, great" comantis -i
"as big" mejos - -on
"bigger" mei(s)amos - -on
"biggest"
sros - -on
"long" cositos - -on
"as long" sejs -ios
"longer" sejamos - -on
"longest"
tresnos - -on
"poweful" trexetos - -on
"as powerful" trexis -ios
"more powerful" trexamos - -on
"most powerful"
uxelos - -on
"high" uxisetos
(or uxetos) - -on
"as high" uxis -ios
"higher" uxisamos
(or uxamos) - -on
"highest"












LABARISH NUMERALS RMS LABARICAS

Cardinals.-
(1 to 4 are declined, and they differentiate masc., fem. and neuter):

1 oinos on (<*oinos, *oin, *oinom)
2 du (m.), du (f.), du (n.) (<*du, *dai, *d(u))
3 trijes (m.), tedres (f.), tr (n.) (<*treyes, *tesores, *tr)
4 petuares (m.), petedres (f.), petur (n.) (<*kwetuores, *kwetesores, *kwetur)

oinos on = declined like a thematic adjective
(V. Declension Stems Vocalic Stems 1) & 2)

two.- masculine & neuter feminine
Nom. du du
Voc. du du
Acc. du du
Gen. duoj (<*duaii) duj
Dat. duobon dubon
Abl.-Ins.-Loc. duobin dubin

three.- masculine feminine neuter
Nom. trijes tedres tr
Voc. trije tedre tr
Acc. trs (<*trins) tedrs tr
Gen. trion (<*triyom) tedron (= masc.)
Dat. triobo tedrobo (=masc.)
Abl.-Ins.-Loc. triobi tedrobo (=masc.)

four.- masculine feminine neuter
Nom. petuares petedres petur
Voc. petuare petedre petur
Acc. peturs (from /trs/) petedrs petur
Gen. peturon (<*kweturom) petedron (= masc.)
Dat. peturobo petedrobo (= masc.)
Abl.-Ins-Loc. peturobi petedrobi (= masc.)

---------

(From 5 to 10 are undeclinable and have no gender):

5 pinpe or penpe (<*kwenkwe)
6 suex (<*sweks)
7 sextan (<*septm)
8 oxt (<*okt)
9 nawan (<*nawn)
10 decan (<*dekmt)

-----------

(From 11 to 19 are undeclinable, following the pattern of decan;
Composite forms for 3 and 4 are tr- and petru-):

11 oinodecan
12 dudecan
13 trdecan
14 petrudecan
15 pinpedecan
16 suexdecan
17 sextadecan
18 oxtdecan
19 naudecan

---------

20 wcant (mt)

(20 has a substantival, not an adjectival, nature. Its declined only in dual number and must be followed by the plural genitive of the calified word:
wcant wironon wcant-c mnnon twenty men and twenty women)

Nom. wcant
Acc. wcant
Gen. wcant
Dat. wcantobon
Abl-Ins.-Loc. wcantobin

-----------

30 trcons (mt, Gen. -ontos, <*trkomt)
40 petrucons
50 pinpecons
60 suescons
70 sextacons
80 oxtcons
90 naucons
100 canton (no, <*kmtom)
200 du-canton, etc.
1.000 geslon (no, <*gheslom, cf. Skt. sa-hsram, Greek ion. khllioi)

(30 to 90 are (mt) themes, compounded with cons/-contos; 100 is an (no) theme. They are followed by the plural genitive of the calified word:
canton petrucons eponon a hundred and forty horses,
penn pinpecontos wironon the heads of fifty men
geslon dijon werbe a thousand days passed off


The combinations of digits, tens and hundreds run like the following examples:

148 men = canton petrucons wironon eti oxt
the heads of 121 men = penn canti wcant wironon eti oini
87 boats = oxtcons nwnon eti sextan
2.132 soldiers = dugeslon canton trcons cingeton eti du
112 spears over 112 carts = canton gajonon dudecan wer cant carronon dudecan
the hair of three women = tidron mnnon woltij
three hairs of woman = trijes banowoltij

----------





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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 10:44

LABARISH ADVERBS & CONJUNCTIONS.-

aiw = always, ever (<*aiuo- life(time), do aiw for ever)
an? = (interr.) maybe?
anne? = (interr.) perhaps not? isnt?
ate = again
auc = for, because (<*au kwe)
canti = therefore, then (<*kanta + id)
cei, cij = here
ceti = although
cuti? = where? (<*kwu-)
deis, ds = yesterday (<*gdiis)
duci = as (<*du-c to this/here)
endo = there
eri = because (<*(p)eri)
eti, -c = and (*eti, *-kwe)
etic = moreover (<*eti-kwe)
extos = but
ixe, -ue (-we) = or (*iste, *-ue)
jon = while, when (<*iom)
ma = if (<*sm)
ne = no, not
nec, nac = and-not (<*ne-kwe)
newe = nor (<*ne-ue)
nu = now
pan = when? (<*kwani in what)
pari? = why? (<*kwa-(p)eri)
po = how? (<*kwod)
samal = likewise; (+ acc.) as, in likeness to (<*samald)
sindi = today
sinnoxti = tonight
sosio = that (rel.) (<*so-siod)
su = so, thus (<*sud)
toni = also


Moreover, whatever adjective may be used adverbially only by putting it in Instrumental case, either in accusative after the preposition inti:
nowi newly,
inti nowion newly, anew, in a new way (cf. Welsh /yn newydd/)
mr greatly, romr very-greatly
etc.

* * * *
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 10:44

LABARISH PREPOSITIONS

Due to their systematical pretonic position, prepositions use to undergo phonetical reductions. Some of them are fossilized case-forms of current words: (*sekwd) > sep > sepu; oncon > onco .

Comparative Indo-european Lingistics show that some prepositions governed the instrumental case (wer vg.), but in Labarion ablative and instrumental have in practice fused. All simplifying, we can consider as the ablative this generally governed case.
In Labarion all the prepositions govern one of two cases: either accusative or ablative-instrumental; the partial exception is in in, which governs the locative case along with the ablative.

ac (+ ) = along with (*ad-ghe, W. , ac)
ad (+ acc.) = towards (*ad-; OIr. ad, W. ad > at)
ambi (+ acc.) = around, about (*mbhi; OIr. imm, W. am)
ande (+ acc.) = under, beneath (*ndhe, OIr. ind, W. tan <*to-andh-)
are (+ acc.) = for the sake of, because of
/ (+ abl.) = before (*pari-, OIr. air er, MW. ar)
au (+ abl.) = from, away from (*au(e); OIr. a, W. o)
canta (+ acc.) = by, with (*knta, OIr. ct- ceta, MW. MB. cant)
cena (+ acc.) = without (*ke- this + -na, OIr. cen)
con (+ abl.) = with (*kom, OIr. co n, MW. ky-t?)
do (+ abl.) = to, for (*to; OIr. do du, OB. do da, Celtib. to)
entra (+ acc.) = into, inside (*entrd, Celtib. e.n.ta.r.a., cf. extra)
eri (+ abl.) = about (*peri, OIr. ir, W. B. er)
ron (+ abl.) = after (*epirom; OIr. ar
ex (+ abl.) = out of, ex (*eks; OIr. ess, MW. ech)
extra (+ acc.) = outside (*ekstrd, OIr. echtar, MW eithyr)
in (+ acc.) = into, to
/ (+ abl./loc.) = in, at (*eni; OIr. OW. OB. in)
inter (+ acc.) = between, among (*enter; OIr. etir eter, OW. ithr)
inti (+ acc.) = with (instrumental) (*nti, OIr. ind, W. yn, compare English and)
ss (+ acc.) = underneath (*pdsu to the feet, OIr. s, W. is)
onco (+ abl.) = beside, next to (*onkom, OIr. oc, W. wnc)
po (+ acc.) = till, until (*kwo-?; OIr. co, MW. py)
raco (+ acc.) = before (*prkom, W. rhag, B. rak)
sepu (+ acc.) = past, beyond (*sekwd; OIr. sech, W. heb without)
trs (+ acc.) = across, beyond (*trns, W. tros, cf. OIr. tar <*tar-es)
trei (+ acc.) = through (*t3ri > *trei; OIr. tre tri, W. trwy)
x (+ acc.) = above, over (*ouks, OIr. s as, W. uwch)
wdo (+ abl.) = in presence of (*ueidos, n. sight, OIr. fad, MW. erwyd <*are-uidh-)
wer (+ acc.) = up, upwards
/ (+ abl.) = on, upon (*upr(i); OIr. for, OW. OB. guor guar, Celtib. uer-)
wo (+ acc.) = downwards
/ (+ abl.) = under (*upo; OIr. fo, OW. guo)
writto (+ acc.) = against; opposite (*urt-tos turned, OIr. frith, W. wrth, B. ouzh)


These prepositions use to undergo phonetical changes according to the word that follows them:
- ad changes to at before t-.
- ex changes to es before words beginning with c- g- n-, and its aspirated before words beginning with r- t-.
- onco, raco, writto are frequently reduced to onc, rac, writ before a word beginning with vowel.
- con, ron and in change to com, rom and im before a word beginning with m-.


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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 12:10


LABARISH PRONOUNS.-

Personal Pronouns.-

1st.-2nd. Sg.
IE. protoform Labarion Meaning IE. protoform Labarion Meaning
(*eghom) m I, me Nom. *t t thou Nom.
*me(go)/-m me Acc. *t(u)e te Acc.
*men mou / mon Gen. *tewe tou Gen.
*moi moi / moj Dat. *t(u)ei tei / tij Dat.
*med me Abl.(Ins-Loc) *t(u)ed te Abl.(Ins-Loc)
The nominative m doesnt come from the original IE *eghom.
The genitive form mou of m is due to an influence from 2nd person tou.

1st.-2nd. Pl.
IE. protoform Labarion Meaning IE. protoform Labarion Meaning
*(s)ns ns we Nom. *sws sus you Nom.
*nos nos Acc. *(s)wos suos Acc.
*nsom anson Gen. *(s)wosom sueson Gen.
*nsmei am Dat. *usmei um Dat.
*nsed anse Abl.(Ins-Loc) *usmed ume Abl.(Ins-Loc)
The gen. sueson has an influence from another proto-form: *suesrom.
The Dat.-Abl. am um ume have become in a very reduced form (original amm, etc. seldom used).

3rd. Sg.
IE. protoforms masc. neuter fem.
*is *id() * s he id it s she Nom.
*im *iym in / jin / ejon id sian Acc.
*esyo / *esys ejo = masc. ejs Gen.
*esmi,*esii,-i ej = masc. ej / ejij Dat.
*esmd *esyd em / ej = masc. ej Abl.-(Inst-Loc.)
The masc. accus. varies its shape (in/jin/ejon) according to the surrounding words.
The masc.-neut. dative ej is a reshaping, shared with Latin /eo/.
The masc.-neut. ablative ej is also a new reshaping (< *esyd). The archaic form em is seldom used.


3rd. Pl.
IE. protoforms masc. neuter fem.
*eyes/ioi **iys eis / ei they / ej ses / ejs Nom.
*ins * *iyns ejs / sos / ej ejs Acc.
*eism ejonon = masc. ejnon Gen.
*eibhyos ejobo = masc. ejbo Dat.
*eibhys ejobi = masc. ejbi Abl.-(Inst-Loc.)
In Celtic the original Nom. pl. masc. *ioi > *jei (> *ei > W. wy). In Labarion dialect, ei takes usually an -s by influence of the noun non-thematic declensions.
About the Nom. pl. neuter, the original IE form was *; Labarion prefers to use the alternative form ej <*ei. It shares this outcome with Gothic (ija) and Latin (ea).
Sos is a particular development of Celtic (<*sns), basis for Insular s-, -(h)o- (OIr. u su <*ss); maybe an interference of the demonstrative system (*so- that). Moreover, Labarion has ejs, a regular development from the root *esyo- (cf. Latin /eos/).
Ejonon/ejnon are secondary developments based on the Gaulish inscription of Larzac (/eianom anuana/). At the same inscription is found /eiabi/ = ejbi in Labarish spelling.

* * * *

Demonstrative Pronouns.-

The basic original paradigm is so(s), s, so that (from an original sense this/that).

(SING.) Masc. Proto-form Neuter Proto-form Fem. Protoform
Nominative so(s) *so so *sod <*tod s *s
Accusative son *tom so *sod <*tod sn *tm
Genitive sojo *tosyo (= masc.) sojs *tosys
Dative soj
(som)(arch.) *tosyi
(*tosmi) (= masc.) soj *tosyi
Ablative-(Instr.) soj
(som)(arch.) *tosyd
(*tosmd) (= masc.) soj *tosyd
Locative somi
(seldom used) (*tosmi) (= masc.) --


(PLUR.) Masc. Proto-form Neuter Proto-form Fem. Proto-form
Nominative soj *toi san *tan <*t ss *ts
Accusative ss / sos *tns/*tons san *tan <*t ss *tns
Genitive sojon *toism (= masc.) sson *tsm
Dative soibo *toibhyos (= masc.) sbo *tbhyos
Abl.-Instr.-Loc. soibi *toibhy-s (= masc.) sbi *tbhy-s

Reduplicated forms: After loss of intervocalic -s-, Labarion re-shaped the so- paradigm with a parallel reduplicated set of forms. Their meaning is but a bit more emphatic than the original ones:
(masc.) soso(s), soson, sosi, sosi (pl.) sosij, soss, soson, (*sosoibo -ibi are not used)
(neuter) sosin, sosin etc. (pl.) sosan (seldom used)
(fem.) sos, sosin, soss, sos, sosi (pl.) soss, soss, (the remaining, as the regular paradigm)
On the other hand, an undeclined base so/se is often used before long phrases. So its more usual to find so wironon dagon of these good men instead sojon wironon dagon, which is felt as more affected or poetic.

1st. deixis: the so- paradigm in Labarion has been moved to the 2nd. deixis (that) by the new formation sondos, sond, sindon this (cf. Welsh hwn, hon, hyn this, and Old Irish sund here <*sond with/in this).
3rd. deixis: that (yonder): sindos, sind, sin. This re-formation achieved an ultimate great success in the insular Celtic languages, becoming the article: *sindos uiros that man > (OIr.) ind fer the man.
Both sondos and sindos paradigms are declined as regular thematic stems. But the neuter nominative-accus. form of the last is sin (pl. sind).

Other formations:
sodejos, - -on that (anaphoric) (<*so-de-sos, OIr. suide)
ixos, -, -on such (<*isto-, Locat. *istei >(reduced form) ixe or)
sios, -, sin this, that (emphatic: m-sios me-here = OIr. messe)
somos, -, -on this very, the same (OIr. som)

* * * *

Reflexive Pronoun.-

The basic form sue- is used:
1) prefixed to ordinary nouns: suegnatos ejo his own son, sueepij mon my own horses.
2) prefixed to 3rd person pronouns. Here it can bear the enclitic particle de thus for emphasis (cf. OIr. fin, fadein, etc.): suejis, suedejis he himself, sues, suedes she herself.
3) for the 1st and 2nd persons, its prefixed to the undeclined demonstrative sin: m suesin/suedesin I myself, tej suesin for yourself.

* * * *


Possessive Pronouns.-

Its used the genitive form of personal pronouns. It can go before or after the calified word:
carros mou or mou carros my car
pennon tou or tou pennon your head

The possessive pronouns are substantivized in this way:
mowos -on mine, ansonos on ours
towos -on thyne, suesonos on yours
For 3rd person its used suejos -on, (pl.) suejonos -on, suejnos -on.


* * * *


Relative Pronoun.-

The original relative pronoun *ios *i *iod still conserved its full flexion system in Celtiberian; but in the late Gaulish dialects, as Labarion, and so in late Insular Celtic, the relative pronoun has lost its autonomy and its used essentially as a clitic.
In Labarion the relative pronoun is used in three ways:

1) A re-shaped neuter accusative jon (<*iom) means when: jon ban maruij when they were dead (cf. OIr. a m-btar when they were, reconstructed as /*sen buantr/ either /*ion buantr/).
2) As a neuter undeclined particle (jo <*iod), which may be optionally attached to the related word either go alone:
merc carjjo the girl I love (carj-jo (who)I-love),
merc jo carj the girl I love.
Both are correct. The loose form is a remainder from that time in what the relative had a full autonomy.
3) when attached to any word (noun, adjective, verb...) the whole form may be substantivized, becoming a new word with relative sense:
wiros man > wirios manly (who is a man)
windos white (masc.) > windios the white one (who is white)
This use is spread in personal names, as it can be seen in general Gaulish: Windi the white one (fem.), Burrios the sturdy one.

As for the verbal based forms, to take in account that those formed upon the bare root do have an active meaning:
sagios who searchs (sagiet searchs)
wicios who fights (wicet fights)
but those forms with -t- have a passive meaning, as they are truly passive participles:
sagetios (who is) searched
wicetios (who is) fought
A remainder of the old Indo-European active participle (-nt-) is used only relative-suffixed:
sagiontios who searchs, searcher
wicontios who fights, fighter
All the above forms are declined in the usual way, as noun and adjectives.

On the other hand expressions like whom, which are often translated with ixos + relat.-io:
Sondos wiros, ixi nemmijo gnatos this man, of whom Im not a son
(of-such no-am-that son)

* * * *

Interrogative Pronoun.-

In Labarion this flexion has mixed two original variants (cf. latin quid and quod). The common nom. sing. masc.-fem. (peis, cf. OIr. ca, Welsh pwy) is an archaism. Flexion:

SING. Masc. Neuter Fem.
Nom-Voc. peis *kweis pid *kwid +id peis *kweis
Accus. pon *kwom pid *kwid +id pn *kwm
Genit. pejo *kwesyo = pejs *kwesys
Dat. pej *kwesi = pej *kwesi
Abl.-Instr. p *kw = p *kw
Locat. pei *kwei = p *kw

PLUR. Masc. Neuter Fem.
Nom-Voc. pejes/pies *kweyes p/pin *k pejs *kwess
Accus. ps *kwins p/pin *k pejs *kwess
Genit. pejon *kweism = pejnon *kwsm
Dat. pejobo *kweibhyos = pejbo *kwbhy-
Abl.-Instr. pejobi *kweibhy-s = pejbi *kwbhy-
Locat. pejobi *kweibhy-s = pejbi *kwbhy-


* * * *


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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 12:11

LABARION: The Verb to be.-


Present Indicative.- Imperfect Indicative.-
I am emi / emmi < *smi I was ejan / eja < *sm
thou art ei < *si you were (sg) eji < *ssi
is essi < *sti was ejt < *st
we are emos/emmos < *sms(i) we were ejmos < *esmos
you are esue < *st +su(es) you were ejte < *este
they are sent(i) < *snti they were ejnt < *esnt


Consuetudinal Present Future
I use to be bij < *bhui Ill be bisi < *bhui-SI-
you use to be bijes youll be bisies
uses to be bijet < *bhuiet will be bisiet < *bhui-SIE-t
we use to be bijomos well be bisiomos
you use to be bijete youll be bisiete
they use to be bijont they will be bisiont

Preterite
I was (far in the past) ban / ba / (buwn) < *buwan < *bheu--m
you were (sg.) bas / (buws) < *buws
was buwe / be < *bheu-
we were bamos
you were bate
they were bant / (buwnt) < *buwnt

Present Subjunctive Preterite Subjunctive
I may be buj (if) I was bejonna < *-oiH1-m-
you may be bues (if) you were bejots <*-oiH1-tH2-
may be buet < *bhu- (if) was bejoto < *oiH1-to
we may be buomos (if) we were bejomos <*-oiH1mos-
you may be buete (if) you were bejotei / -t <*-oiH1-tesoi
they may be buont (if) they were bejonto < *-oiH1-nto

Present Imperative Future Imperative
--- ---
be! (thou) bije < *bh(u)i-e be! (thou) bijet
lets be((s)he) bijeto < *-tou ? lets be bijet < *-td
lets be (we) bijomos ---
be you bijete be you bijet
lets be (they) bijonto lets be (they) bijont < *-ntd


Nominal forms of the verb.-

Active participle: bujaunos on who (is) being, (a) being < *bh(e)u-mno-
Passive participle: butos on been (OIr. both)
Gerundive: buetejos on who (is) for to be (OIr. buithi)
Verbal noun: but (fa) to be, being, Abl.-instr. but in being, being.


x x x x

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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 12:12

LABARION VERBAL SYSTEM



GENERAL SKETCH OF THE VERB:

Three moods: indicative, subjuntive, imperative.
Two voices: active and mediopassive

Indicative (4 tenses): present, imperfect, preterite, future.
Subjuntive (2 tenses) : present, preterite.
Imperative (2 tenses): present, future.

Nominal forms of the verb: active participle, passive participle, gerundive, verbal noun.

(Remark.- The imperfect is used modally in a conditional sense)


CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS: Weak and Strong Verbs

WEAK VERBS:

(AI) weak verbs in (- is attached to the verbal root):
itj, its, itt ... I go, you go, goes...
(AII) weak verbs in (- is attached to the verbal root):
rdIJ, rds, rdt... I speak, you speak, speaks...

(Another ancient class, verbs in diphthong (AIII): bAJ, bAJEs, bAJEt I die, you die, dies... in Labarion have been superseded by the (BII) classes, sometimes by the (AII) classes)

STRONG VERBS:

(BI) verbs with thematic vowel -e/-o:
cing, cingEs, cingEt... I walk, you walk, walks...
(BII) verbs with -ie/-io:
gabI, gabIEs, gabIEt... I take, you take, takes...
(BIII) verbs with non-radical n:
boNg, boNges, boNget... I break, you break, breaks...
(BIV) verbs with -na- suffixed:
beNAmi, beNAi, beNAt... I cut, you cut, cuts...
(BV) verbs with -nu- suffixed:
gniNUmi, gniNUi, gniNUt... I recognize, you recognize, recognizes...

Remarks.- Weak verbs use to be derived from nouns and adjectives (although there are some primitive verbs). Strong verbs are usually primitives (from a verbal root).
Weak and Strong verbs differ in some aspects of their conjugaisons.


PRONOUN-VERBAL PARTICLES

Celtic languages tend to be emphatic regarding the actors of the sentence. In Labarion, verbal forms can be optionally reinforced by adding to them some pronominal particle:
m I, me
t you (sg.)
i(s) he
s she
i(d) i(t) it
ns we
sus you (pl.)
eis they (masc.)
ejs they (fem.)

Now, if for the sake of expressiveness the verb is carried to head of sentence, to be accompanied by the pronoun is OBLIGATORY:
epon gabi the-horse I-take
epon gabi-m the-horse I-take myself
gabiu-m epon I-myself-take the-horse (obligatory form)

In absence of any given pronoun-verbal particle, its added i(d). Two different words have been confused here: reduced form of the pronoun is/id he/it and a meaningless particle < *ide (IE. here). The function of i(d) (either -it) is similar to classical Greek d but usually accompanies the verb.
Optionally, another similar form: it(a), precedes the verb. Its original meaning is thus, but its used often like a pure preverbal particle.

gabiet-i mapos epon Takes-(particle) the-boy the-horse
ita gabiet mapos epon Thus takes the-boy the-horse
These kind of sentences, which in Insular Celtic will become the regular pattern, are felt in Labarion as very emphatic, being a more usual pattern: Mapos gabiet epon.

There are other conjuctions that may supply ita and id, in a logical context of speech. Only one particle or pronoun attracts the verb to the head.


ACTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE

(AI) (AII) (BI)
anj I breathe arci I ask delg I hold
ani you breathe arcj you ask delges you hold
ant breathes arct asks delget holds
anmos we br. arcmos we ask delgomos we hold
ante you br. arcte you ask delgete you hold
annt they br. arcnt they ask delgont they hold

(BII) (BIII) (BIV) (BV)
gari I call deng I oppress binami I strike linumi I flow
garies you call denges you oppress binai you strike linui you flow
gariet calls denget oppresses binat strikes linut flows
gariomos we call dengomos we oppr. binamos we strike linumos we flow
gariete you call dengete you oppr. binate you strike linute you flow
gariont they call dengont they oppr. binant they strike linunt they flow

Remarks.- In Class (BIV) the final ami does not contain the pronoun, but its a direct descendant of Indo-European primary endings (compare Greek ddmi); nevertheless a certain confussion has raised in the language between this ending and the regular pronouns (which have at last the same origin), confussion that is spreading to the rest of verbal classes. From here comes some anarchy in the use (and the ultimate fusion in ulterior Insular languages).
Related to it is the 2 sg. ai < -asi, whereas the alternative form es <*-es comes from the IE. secondary ending, by itself either fused with an apocopated primary ending (*-es(i) ).
Class (BV) is very meagre; it encloses barely three or four verbs.

* * * *


PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

The Subjuntive stem possesses two modalities:
1) The strong verbs with root ended in dental (T, D) or guttural (K, G) take -se directly added to the root, conjugated like a (BI) verb:
resset may run <*ret-SE-t, wrexet may do <*ureg-SE-t.
2) All the remaining verbs (weak and strong) have original *-h1se- ending, adapted as follows:
The (AI) verbs assimilate the laryngal to the vowel ending -, vg.: itit may go <*itset
The (AII) verbs assimilate the laryngal to the vowel ending -, vg.: arcet may ask <*arcset
The strong verbs adapt it as *ase directly added to the root, vg.: essait may ate <*essaset, biait may strike <*biaset
In this group of verbs, the 1st sing. form ends in -n instead of -.


(AI) (AII) (BI)
ann I may breathe arcn I may ask *delg-S(e)- > delx I may hold
anji you may br. arcei you may ask *delg-SE-s > delxes you ..
anit (s)he .. arcet (s)he .. delxet (s)he..
anomos we .. arcomos we .. delxomos we ..
anite you .. arcete you ... delxete you ..
anont they .. arcont they .. delxont they ..

(BII) (BIII) (BIV) (BV)
garn I may call dex I may oppress bin I may strike linn I may flow
garaiss you .. dexes you .. biaji you .. linaji you ..
garait (s)he .. dexet (s)he .. biait (s)he .. linait (s)he ..
garaomos we ... dexomos we .. biaomos we .. linaomos we ..
garaite you .. dexete you .. biaite you .. linaite you ..
garaont they .. dexont they .. biaont they .. linaont they ..


* * * *


PRETERITE

The preterite is formed according to the following patterns:
1) weak verbs have -s preterite, with usual shortening of the post-root vowel (except in some verbs with secondary hiatus, resulting in -- or --):
arciss, arcisses, arcis, arcissames, arcissate, arcissant "I asked, thou asketh,...."
(the flexion of the -s preterite uses thematic forms for the sg., and non-thematic for the pl.)
2) strong verbs in -l and -r and some in nasal and guttural, have a t- preterite.
axt, axtes, axti, axtomes, axtete, axton "I drove...." (*ag-t-) from aget (BI)
gart, gartes, garti, gartomes, gartete, garton "I called...." from gariet (BII)
orxt, orxtes, orxti, orxtomes, orxtete, orxton "I killed..." from orget (BI)
3) the remaining strong verbs have suffixless preterite, and there are two formations,
a) reduplicated:
biban, bibas, bibe, bibames, bibate, bibant "I struck...." from binat (BIV)
b) unreduplicated:
gda, gdas, gde, gdames, gdate, gdant , from guediet (BII) "prays"

4) A few special preterites must be learned apart. For example, two strong verbs with root ended in -b have s- preterite:
ibet (BI) "drinks", makes a preterite in -i-: ibiss, ibisses, ibis,....
gabiet (BII) "takes", makes a preterite in -a-: gabass, gabasses, gabas,...
5) The verb sagiet (BII) "seeks" has a -t and reduplicated preterite at once:
sioxt, sioxtes, sioxti, sioxtemes, sioxtete, sioxton (<*se-sag-t-, OIr. siacht-, Gaul. sioxti)
6) The verb sediet (BII) "sits" has a -s preterite and reduplicated at once, and moreover inflected as a deponent:
siossr, siossetar, siossar, siossomor, siossete, siossontor (<*se-sod-s-, OIr. sassair)


* * * *


THE DEPONENT AND THE PASSIVE.

A deponent verb is a verb inflected as a passive but having an active meaning (its origin is really medial, i.e. the verbal action comes out from the subject but falls upon the very subject: labarr ' I speak').
In the historical insular languages, deponent had already disappeared from Brittonic since the oldest documents, and in Old Irish it was in regression.
Labarion is a Celtic dialect six centuries older than the oldest insular texts (putting aside the Ogham materials, scarcely containing more than personal names) and thus Labarion maintains a full deponent and passive inflection parallel to Latin indeed.
Moreover, Labarion maintains a passive-impersonal form, a very archaic trait not shared with Latin but shared with Umbrian and Hittite instead, and rather curiously it is the only trait of this paradigm fully conserved by insular languages, Brittonic included.


DEPONENT ACTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE

(AI) (AII) (BI) (BII)
labarr I speak
(*labar- + -r) sepir I follow medir I judge,
I consider
labartar you
(also -ter) speak septar you follow
(also -ter) medietar you judge
(also -ieter)
labartor speaks septor follows medietor judges
labarmor we sp. sepmor we follow mediomor we judge
labarte you sp. septe you follow mediete you judge
labarntor they
speak sepntor they
follow mediontor they
judge

Notes:
1) the deponent-passive form of the 2nd plural has no -r, and it is really the same as the active one; an archaic trait shared with Latin and fully maintained by Old Irish.
2) we comment the curious case of the verb *sekwi:-, which means 'says' when inflected as an active: sept (AII), but 'follows' when inflected as a deponent: septor (AII depon.). The original meaning was the same, but here in Labarion it is considered that the action of 'to follow' falls upon the subject itself.
This identity between the 'follow' and the 'say' concept (i.e."to say = to follow (the words)") is common to both Celtic and Latin: OIr. -sech (active) 'to say', sechitir (depon.) 'follows', MW. heb, hebyr 'says', Latin sequor (depon.) 'I follow', inquam 'I say' <*in-sequam.
3) For obtaining the passive paradimg of any active verb, we need only to attach to it the above endings. Vg.:
arci 'I ask', arcj 'you ask' --- arcir 'I'm asked', arctar 'you're asked'
delg 'I hold', delges 'you hold' --- delgr 'I'm held', delgetar 'you're held'
4) When attached the -i(d) post-verbal particle, the 3rd persons use to be shortened this way:
labartor 'speaks' > labartri 'speaks<it>' (instead of labartori, also possible)
labarntor 'they speak' > labarntri 'they speak<it>' (for labarntori, also possible).
5) the PASSIVE-IMPERSONAL form is obtained by just adding the -r to the basic form of the verb. As the real origin is *-r (a sounding consonant), the strong verbs do take a form in -ar (instead of *-er):
anr (AI) 'it is breathed, everybody breathes'
arcr (AII) 'it is asked, everybody asks'
labarr (AI depon.) 'it is spoken, everybody speaks'
sepr (AII) 'it is said /it is followed'
delgar (BI) 'it is held'
mediar (BI, depon.) 'it is considered'

6) The particular cases of the verbs "to hear, to know, to want":
a) "to hear" is the only deponent verb of the (BV) class: clinutor (BV), cloust (fa) "hears" (<*klneu-, OIr. cluinethar, clas, but W. clust "ear").
But it exists moreover a non-deponent clujet (BII), clowetus (mu) "hears". Clujet is a Labarish re-shaping of an original (AII) clut, sometimes also used (<*klus--, W. clyw, clywed, Gaul. cluiou).
Both verbs are nearly synonimous, and they share a part of their paradigms (for example, a common reduplicated preterite: cuclowa, cuclowas, cuclowe, cuclowames, .... ), but perhaps clinutor has a more passive meaning "hears, it comes to his/her ears" and clujet is rather well active "to hear, to listen to".
b) "to know" also has two parallel verbs:
widra, widras, widre, widramer, widate, widantar, a preterite-present verb (OIr. fetar, fetar, fitir, fitemmar, fitid, fetatar) "I know, ..." (rather well in a passive form),
gnij, gnijes, gnijet, gnijomes, gnijete, gnijont (BII) "I know, ..." (rather well by active learning, Gaul. gniIou, W. adnabod <d-gneu-, OW. gnou).
Moreover, it exist a present (BV) paradigm: winnr, winnetar, winnetor, winnomor, winnete, winnontor "I get to know,..." (OIr. finnadar <*ui-n-d-neu-).
All three are but modalities of an only verb, and they share the same VN: wissus (mu).
c) one of the verbs for "to want, to wish" is a deponent (BI) class:
welr, weletar, weletor, welomor, welete, welontor (Gaul-Lat. uelor, cfs. Lat. volo, Goth. wilja).
(not to confound with the (AII) weli, welj, welt... "I see, you see, ..." which comes from an homophonous IE root).
The VN of weletor is suanton (no), of course the same of suantet (BI), a synonymous verb.


* * * *

DEPONENT PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

The paradigm of this tense is the same as the active mood but adding the deponent-passive endings:

(AI) (AII) (BII)
labarr I may
speak separ I may
follow messr I may judge
(*med-se--r)
labaritar you
may speak sepetar you may
follow messar you ..
(*med-se-(te)r)
labaritor (s)he .. sepetor (s)he .. messetor (s)he..
labaromor we .. sepomor we .. messomor we ..
labarite you .. sepete you ... messete you ..
labarontor they.. sepontor they .. messontor they ..




* * * *

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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 18:11

Est-ce que les membres franais de la mouvance no-druidiste vont apprendre cette langue?
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 18:47

silent


Dernire dition par lsd le Lun 8 Juil 2013 - 9:55, dit 1 fois
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 19:45

J'ai eu du mal trouver les rgles de cette conlang (caches de l'extrieur dans la section fichier d'un groupe yahoo...).

En fait, c'est prcisment sur un forum parlant du groupe bardique suisse mentionn par Isd que j'ai retrouv la trace de cette conlang. Ils disent qu'elle est bien sur certains aspects, moins sur d'autres, sans dtailler.
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 21:06

Et le lexique?
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mar 21 Mai 2013 - 21:30

Silvano a crit:
Et le lexique?


Je donne le lien vers la page sur Scribd tout en haut de ce fil.
Ca a l'air d'tre bien (finalement, le lexique gaulois est plus facile trouver ou reconstruire que la grammaire) mais j'ai l'impression qu'ils auraient pu mettre plus de mots.

Par exemple, pour les lieux du Qubec, tu peux reconstruire Virodnon = Verdun.

Par contre, pour Longueuil, je ne trouve que "lonc" = le bateau; j'aurais aim avoir *ialos ou *iolos = la clairire.
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mer 22 Mai 2013 - 2:24

HAHA ! Donc Eluveitie chante en labarion ? Ou une langue inspire ?

Il y a des textes dans cette langue ? Parce que les longues listes de dclinaisons, a me rend malade... pale

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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Mer 22 Mai 2013 - 9:19

Nemszev a crit:
HAHA ! Donc Eluveitie chante en labarion ? Ou une langue inspire ?

Il y a des textes dans cette langue ? Parce que les longues listes de dclinaisons, a me rend malade... pale

Pas "en labarion", mais dans une langue trs proche. Tu te souviens peut-tre que j'avais russi analyser le texte de la chanson.

Il doit y avoir quelques textes, dans la section fichiers du groupe Yahoo....
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Lun 27 Mai 2013 - 5:21

Olivier Simon a crit:
Silvano a crit:
Et le lexique?


Je donne le lien vers la page sur Scribd tout en haut de ce fil.
On me demande de payer pour devenir un Premium Reader...
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Sam 8 Juin 2013 - 20:42

Ce soir sur ARTE, un documentaire par J.J. Beneix sur les Gaulois : http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr
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MessageSujet: Re: Labarion (Alounis)   Aujourd'hui 10:42

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